The White House
An American Treasure
Photographs from the
200th Anniversary Kickoff Celebration
For two hundred years, the White House has stood as a symbol of
the Presidency, the United States government, and the American people. Its
history, and the history of the nation's capital, began when President
George Washington signed an Act of Congress in December of 1790 declaring that
the federal government would reside in a district "not exceeding ten miles
on the river Potomac." President Washington, together with city
planner Pierre L'Enfant, chose the site for the new residence, which is
now 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. As preparations began for the new federal city, a
competition was held to find a builder of the "President's House." Nine
proposals were submitted, and Irish-born architect James Hoban won a gold medal
for his practical and handsome design.
Construction began when the first cornerstone was laid in October of
1792. Although President Washington oversaw the construction of the house, he
never lived in it. It was not until 1800, when the White House was nearly
completed, that its first residents, President John Adams and his wife,
Abigail, moved in. Since that time, each President has made his own changes and
additions. The White House is, after all, the President's private home. It
is also the only private residence of a head of state that is open to the
public, free of charge.
The White House has a unique and fascinating history. It survived a fire
at the hands of the British in 1814 (during the war of 1812) and another fire
in the West Wing in 1929, while Herbert Hoover was President. Throughout much
of Harry S. Truman's presidency, the interior of the house, with the
exception of the third floor, was completely gutted and renovated while the
Trumans lived at Blair House, right across Pennsylvania Avenue. Nonetheless,
the exterior stone walls are those first put in place when the White House was
constructed two centuries ago.
Presidents can express their individual style in how they decorate some
parts of the house and in how they receive the public during their stay. Thomas
Jefferson held the first Inaugural open house in 1805. Many of those who
attended the swearing-in ceremony at the U.S. Capitol simply followed him home,
where he greeted them in the Blue Room. President Jefferson also opened the
house for public tours, and it has remained open, except during wartime, ever
since. In addition, he welcomed visitors to annual receptions on New
Year's Day and on the Fourth of July. In 1829, a horde of 20,000 Inaugural
callers forced President Andrew Jackson to flee to the safety of a hotel while,
on the lawn, aides filled washtubs with orange juice and whiskey to lure the
mob out of the mud-tracked White House.
After Abraham Lincoln's presidency, Inaugural crowds became far too
large for the White House to accommodate them comfortably. However, not until
Grover Cleveland's first presidency did this unsafe practice change. He
held a presidential review of the troops from a flag-draped grandstand built in
front of the White House. This procession evolved into the official Inaugural
parade we know today. Receptions on New Year's Day and the Fourth of July
continued to be held until the early 1930s.
President Clinton's open house on January 21, 1993 renewed a
venerable White House Inaugural tradition. Two thousand citizens, selected by
lottery, were greeted in the Diplomatic Reception Room by President and Mrs.
Clinton and Vice President and Mrs. Gore.